Apply These Secret Techniques To Improve Pregnancy Loss And Chromosome Testing For Miscarriages

Although most couples are blissfully unaware of the statistics surrounding miscarriage, pregnancy loss is in fact quite common, with 10-25% of recognized pregnancies ending in miscarriage. Assuming you have suffered a pregnancy loss or are in the process of having a miscarriage, you might be wondering what caused the loss and worry about whether it’ll happen again. This short article aims to answer the following questions:

What causes miscarriage?
How common is pregnancy loss?
What type of genetic testing can be acquired for miscarriage tissue?
How do chromosome testing help?
Causes of Miscarriage

There are many different explanations why miscarriage occurs, but the most typical cause for first trimester miscarriage is a chromosome abnormality. Chromosome abnormalities – extra or missing whole chromosomes, also known as “aneuploidy” – occur due to a mis-division of the chromosomes in the egg or sperm involved in a conception. Typically, humans have 46 chromosomes that come in 23 pairs (22 pairs numbered from 1 to 22 and then the sex chromosomes, X and Y). pregnancy For a baby to develop normally it is necessary that it have exactly the right quantity of chromosome material; missing or extra material during conception or in an embryo or fetus can cause a female to either not get pregnant, miscarry, or have a child with a chromosome syndrome such as for example Down syndrome.

Over 50% of all first trimester miscarriages are due to chromosome abnormalities. This number may be closer to 75% or more for women aged 35 years and over who have experienced recurrent pregnancy loss. Overall, the rate of chromosome abnormalities and the rate of miscarriage both increase with maternal age, with a steep increase in women older than 35.

Pregnancy Loss – How Common is it?

Miscarriage is a lot more common than most people think. Up to one in every four recognized pregnancies is lost in first trimester miscarriage. The opportunity of having a miscarriage also increases as a mother gets older.

Most women who experience a miscarriage continue to possess a healthy pregnancy and never miscarry again. However, some women appear to be more prone to miscarriage than others. About five percent of fertile couples will experience several miscarriages.

Of note, the rate of miscarriage is apparently increasing. One reason for this may be awareness – more women know they are having a miscarriage because home pregnancy tests have improved early pregnancy detection rates over the past decade, whereas in past times the miscarriage would have appeared to be just a unique period. Another reason may be that more women are conceiving at older ages.

Types of Genetic Testing Helpful for Miscarriages

Genetic testing actually identifies many types of testing that you can do on the DNA in a cell. For miscarriage tissue, also called products of conception (POC), probably the most useful type of test to perform is really a chromosome analysis. A chromosome analysis (also known as chromosome testing) can examine all 23 pairs of chromosomes for the presence of extra or missing chromosome material (aneuploidy). Because so many miscarriages are due to aneuploidy, chromosome analysis on the miscarriage tissue could identify the reason for the pregnancy loss.

The most common method of chromosome analysis is named karyotyping. Newer methods include advanced technologies such as microarrays.

Karyotyping analyzes all 23 pairs of chromosome but requires cells from the miscarriage tissue to first be grown in the laboratory, a process called “cell culture”. For this reason requirement, tissue that is passed at home is often unable to be tested with this method. About 20% or more of miscarriage samples neglect to grow and thus no email address details are available. Additionally, karyotyping is unable to tell the difference between cells from mom (maternal cells) and cells from the fetus. In case a normal female result is found, it may be the correct result for the fetus or it might be maternal cell contamination (MCC) where the result actually originates from testing the mother’s cells within the pregnancy tissue instead of the fetal cells. MCC seems to occur in about 30% or even more of the samples tested by traditional karyotype. Results from karyotyping usually have a few weeks to months another from the laboratory.

Microarray testing is a new type of genetic testing done on miscarriage samples; both most common forms of microarray testing are array CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and chromosome SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) microarray. Microarray testing is also in a position to test all 23 pairs of chromosomes for aneuploidy, but does not require cell culture. Therefore, you’re more prone to receive results and the results are usually returned faster when microarray testing is used. Additionally, some laboratories are collecting an example of the mother’s blood at the same time the miscarriage tissue is sent to enable immediate detection of maternal cell contamination (MCC).

Chromosome Testing – How do it help?

If a chromosome abnormality is identified, the type of abnormality found can be assessed to help answer fully the question: “Will this happen to me again?”. Quite often, chromosome abnormalities in an embryo or fetus are not inherited and have a minimal possiblity to occur in future pregnancies. Sometimes, a particular chromosome finding in a miscarriage alerts your physician to do further studies to research the chance of an underlying genetic or chromosome problem in your family that predisposes one to have miscarriages.

Furthermore, in case a chromosome abnormality is identified it could prevent the need for other, sometimes quite costly, studies your doctor might consider to investigate the reason for the miscarriage.

Lastly, knowing the reason for a pregnancy loss can help a couple start the emotional healing process, moving past the question of “Why did this happen to me?”.

Chromosome testing can be especially very important to patients with repeated miscarriages, as it can either give clues to an underlying chromosomal cause for the miscarriages or eliminate chromosome errors as the reason behind the miscarriages and allow their doctor to pursue other types of testing. For couples with multiple miscarriages determined to truly have a chromosomal cause, in vitro fertilization (IVF) with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) testing might be able to help increase their chances of having an effective healthy pregnancy.